Stacks Image 5
Above: The USS Olympia, the last in a line of “protected” cruisers, was commissioned in 1895, the same year as the commissioning of the Navy’s first battleship, USS Indiana. Olympia became famous as the flagship of Commodore George Dewey during the Spanish American War at the Battle of Manilla Bay. In this painting, she leads a line of similar U.S. battle cruisers. Note the color scheme of the day — a white hull and tan superstructure, resulting in the term, “America’s Great White Fleet,” the nickname for President Theodore Roosevelt’s circumnavigating navy in 1907. The Olympia is currently a museum ship in Philadelphia. Naval ships of the late 19th and early 20th Century burned coal, leaving a great plume of black smoke while underway. It causes one to conclude that it would have been difficult for these ships to sneak up on an adversary during daylight.

Please be advised that I built this web site from the point of view of a cheerleader for great American feats that we can take pride in. I am, by no means, an authoritative source or experienced historian. My goal is to bring these topics to your attention and encourage you to learn more about them.
Stacks Image 52
Ever more powerful ships in an international competition

We would not have needed to keep building bigger, more powerful ships if it were not for an international competition in which many other countries were continually trying to build a navy that could sink the other guy’s navy. At the very least, we needed to protect our coastal borders and shipping lanes. England, France, Spain, Portugal, Holland, Germany, and Italy could never have become colonial powers without a strong navy. A century earlier, we had become an independent nation and wanted to keep it that way. There was an ongoing debate in the U.S. during the 19th Century as to whether we should engage in colonialism overseas. We had expanded our nation across a continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific. For many Americans, that was enough. Still we ended up occupying Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Haiti, and, in a way, Cuba.

Stacks Image 308
USS Newark C-1
USS Newark (C-1) - Protected Cruiser
Either the last or one of the last US Navy ships to have sails (to extend range) as well as steam power, the Newark represents an interesting turning point in American naval ship design. The all steel steam-powered ships that preceded Newark were not as sleek in design and featured taller masts for larger sail area. In all later ships, masts were used to support crows nests or observation platforms, not for hanging sails. Newark was built by William Camp and Sons in Philadelphia and launched in 1890 about two years before the launch of Olympia. Note that her main guns, a total of twelve 6-inch guns, six on each side, are mounted within the hull and apparently below the main deck in protrusions called sponsons. Olympia, by contrast, had her smaller guns in sponsons below deck, but her main guns (four 8” guns) were on two deck-mounted turrets, one forward of the bridge and one aft. Below-deck cannons had been the norm in warships for several hundred years, and starting in the 1890’s, American ships would have deck-mounted turrets. Newark was also among the first all-steel ships, with just a small number preceding her. Newark served in the Spanish American war in the blockade of Cuba, and assisted the army in the Philippine American War.
Designed in 1885 by the Navy/s Bureauof Construction and Repair
Built by William Camp & Sons in Philadelphia
Launched: March, 1890
Displacement: 4.083 long tons
Length: 328 ft. Beam: 49 ft.
Power: 4- coal fired boilers, 2 “triple expansion steam engines, driving two propellers
Speed: 18 knots
Range: 3,922 nautical miles
Crew: 384 officers and enlisted
Armament (12) 6” guns, (10) smaller guns plus (4) 45 caliber Gatling guns

Note: “protected” refers to a system that had the heaviest steel armor in a horizontal gentle curve protecting the lower decks, where the engine room, coal, and munitions were, as opposed to armoring the sides of the ship. By the 1880’s this was a standard concept in warship design in Europe as well as in the U.S.
18th Century naval can
1898 American Naval Gun
Above left: a painting by artist Louis Philippe Crépin depicting the gun deck of an 18th Century French ship. And above right: a 1998 photo by Edward Hart showing one of the USS Newark’s main guns. To reload the 18th Century cannon, sailors had to use block and tackle to roll the heavy carriage back into the ship so that gun powder and a cannon ball could be stuffed down the barrel from the front. Note the wooden block and wedge under cannon barrel that were used to adjust upward angle and the long ram rods needed for reloading. The Newark’s gun, by contrast, was breach loaded and sat on a mechanical turret base that could easily rotate the gun left and right as well as adjust the vertical angle of fire. In both examples, though, the gun deck is below the main deck.
Stacks Image 290
USS Maine - (ACR-1)
Sometimes referred to as the first battleship, she was ultimately classified as an Armored Cruiser. Confronting the reality in 1884 that the American Navy could not hold it own against major European navies and even the Brazilian Navy, Congress authorized two new-design coastal defense ships, of which Maine was the first.

Built at the New York Naval Shipyard starting in 1888 and finally commissioned in 1895 after several construction delays.
Displacement: 6,682 long tons ( 7.484 tons)
Length: 324 ft. Beam: 57 ft.
Propulsion: 8 coal-fired boilers, 2 triple expansion steam engines, 2 props
Speed: 16 knots Range: 3600 nautical miles
Armament: Four 10-inch guns in two turrets. Six 6-in. guns and various smaller guns, two torpedo tubes
Crew: 374 Officers and enlisted men.

Following the British example, Maine’s big guns were mounted asymmetrically in two turrets — toward the aft on the port side and towards the bow in the starboard side. This arrangement ultimately resulted in balance and stress issues, so the concept was ditched after the Maine and the Texas. Her 6” guns were of the same design used on USS Newark (shown above). Since steam was by then considered reliable and sufficient, the two masts were for observation crow’s nests and not for sails.

USS Maine
View of the Maine from her stern showing her port turret able to fire straight back past the gun deck on that side. The starboard turret could fire straight forward, and either could fire a broadside.

Remember the Maine!
Maine became famous in American history because of her sinking in Havana Harbor in 1898. At that time, Cuba was a Spanish colony that was in the process of fighting for independence. The U.S. had substantial business interests in Cuba and politically supported independence. Maine was in the harbor to protect American interests. She sank after an enormous explosion, taking 260 men down with her. Many claimed it was the work of a Spanish mine, and that led to a war cry (“Remember the Maine”) that helped to propel the U.S. into a war with Spain (The Spanish American War). It was ultimately determined that the explosion was in the forward magazines containing 5 tons of powder charges for the 10” and 6” guns and may have been triggered by a gas fire from the bituminous coal, or possibly by a mine. The debate was never fully settled.
Stacks Image 273
USS Texas
USS Texas
Authorized along with the USS Maine as a coastal defense battleship, she is similar in design to the USS Maine with asymmetric placement of her main turrets. She was either a second-class battleship or an armored cruiser, depending upon which description you read.
Gun Turrets on USS Texas
Built at Norfolk Naval Shipyard starting in 1889 and finally commissioned in 1895
Displacement: 6,316 long tons ( 7.074 tons)
Length: 308 ft. Beam: 64 ft.
Propulsion: Coal-fired boilers, 2 triple expansion steam engines, 2 props
Speed: 16 knots Range: 3600 nautical miles
Armament: Two 12-inch guns in two turrets. Six 6-in. guns and various smaller guns, two torpedo tubes
Crew: 392 Officers and enlisted men.
After several mishaps and problems from design flaws requiring several re-designs and repairs, the Texas joined the US naval forces in Cuba during the Spanish American war and played a key role in shore bombardment and destroying Spanish ships, ultimately resulting in American victory.
Stacks Image 119
USS Olympia (C-6)

Commissioned in the same year as the Maine and the Texas, Olympia was longer, faster, more sleek in design and with greater range. She was therefore better suited for ocean crossing.

Built by Union Iron Works in San Francisco and commissioned in 1895.
Displacement: 6,586 long tons ( 6,256 tons)
Length: 344 ft. Beam: 53 ft.
Propulsion: 6 coal-fired boilers, 2 triple expansion steam engines, 2 props
Speed: 21.7 knots Range: 6,00 nautical miles
Armament: Four 8-inch guns in two turrets. Ten 5-in. guns and various smaller guns, six above-surface torpedo tubes
Crew: 428 Officers and enlisted men

Olympia has been a museum ship in Philadelphia since 1957. She is on the National Trust for Historic Preservation most endangered list. In need of repair but still providing a rewarding experience for visitors, Olympia is worth the trip to Philadelphia.
USS Olympia C-6
Stacks Image 167

The First American Battleships (Pre-Dreadnought)

Stacks Image 169
Naval cruisers in the 1890’s had a broad variety of forms. They were armed, but were generally more operational ships, than serious war ships. The term battleship was originally used for the Maine and the Texas. The Maine had four 10-inch guns, and the Texas had two 12-inch guns, but they were more in keeping what the British had called “second-class” battleship, meaning smaller and more lightly armed than the full-sized ships. Subsequently, the Maine and the Texas were referred to as cruisers. The U.S. Navy needed a fleet of heavily armed ships that would be a match for any other navy. Though some in Congress wanted to build a powerful modern navy with over a hundred new ships, others objected to the cost and did not really want America try to project imperial power overseas. So the first class of battleship was limited to three vessels for mostly coastal defense — with big guns.
USS Indiana BB-1
USS Indiana (BB-1)
The lead ship in the Indiana Class - the first class of American battleships with three ships in the class. This class was designed for coastal defense, not overseas offensive campaigns. The Indiana and her sister ships were very heavily armed and armored to a point of overreach for their relative small size. Note the low freeboard in the photo (height of the hull above the water line), not designed for ocean seagoing. Twelve or thirteen-inch guns were now needed to be competitive with the battleships being built by other countries, including Britain, Farnce, Germany, Russia, and Japan. It took a big gun to penetrate the armor of battleship at range in ship-to-ship warfare. The secondary guns were faster loading, more accurate and could do damage to the bridge and other parts of an enemy ship above the armor belt.
Built by William Cramp and Sons Shipbuilding in Philadelphia.
Keel laid in May, 1891 and launched in February, 1893
Commissioned in November, 1895
Displacement: 10,288 long tons (11,523 tons)
Length: 350 ft. Beam: 69 ft.
Propulsion: 4 coal-fired boilers, 2 sets triple expansion steam engines, 2 props
Speed: 15 knots
Range: 4,900 nautical miles
Main Armament: Four 13-inch guns in two turrets.
Intermediate Armament: Eight 8-inch guns in 4 turrets
Secondary Armament: Four 6-inch guns, Twelve 3-inch guns plus smaller guns
Torpedo Tubes: Four 18” torpedo tubes
Crew: 473 Officers and enlisted men
Stacks Image 48
USS Massachusetts BB-2
USS Massachusetts (BB-2)
The second ship in the Indiana class, Massachusetts was built more or simultaneously with the Indiana in the same shipyard. Along with her sister ships, she served in the Spanish-American War. After the war she served in coastal patrol but had the misfortune of running aground several times. She served as a gunnery practice ship during WW1.
Built by William Cramp and Sons Shipbuilding in Philadelphia.
Keel laid in June, 1891 and launched in June, 1893
Commissioned in June, 1895
Displacement: 10,288 long tons (11,523 tons)
Length: 350 ft. Beam: 69 ft.
Stacks Image 74
USS Oregon BB-3
USS Oregon (BB-3)
The third ship in the Indiana class. Having been commissioned on the west coast, USS Oregon had to travel around the southern tip of South America to participate in the Spanish-American War. It was a 16,000 mile voyage that she completed in 66 days, which made both the ship and the need for the completions of the Panama Canal famous with the American people. Six years later, the U.S. picked up the project that the French had abandoned and opened the canal in 1914.
Built by Union Iron Works in San Francisco
Keel laid in November, 1891 and launched in October, 1893
Commissioned in July, 1896
Displacement: 10,288 long tons (11,523 tons)
Length: 350 ft. Beam: 69 ft.
Stacks Image 70
USS Iowa BB-4
Gun turret positioning on USS Iowa
USS Iowa (BB-4)
An improvement on the Indiana Class with more freeboard (deck higher above the water line) making her more secure in heavy seas, and keeping her gun turrets more removed from damaging salt water. She was also longer and faster. The plan view diagram shows the positioning of her guns.

Built by: William Cram & sons in Philadelphia at a cost of $3 million
Keel Laid: August 1893 Launched March 1896
Commissioned: June, 1897
Displacement: 11,346 long tons (12,708 tons)
Length: 360 ft. Beam 72 ft.
Crew: 683 Officers and Enlisted Men
Four 12” guns in two turrets
Eight 8” guns in four turrets
Six 4” guns in casemates
20 6-pounder guns
4 1-pounder guns
Speed: 17 knots

Iowa served in the Spanish American War playing a key role in the Battle of Santiago, the decisive sea battle that ended Spain’s naval power in the Western Hemisphere.

Stacks Image 99
USS Kentucky BB-6
Kearsarge Class
USS Kearsarge (BB-5)
USS Kentucky (BB-6) (Shown above)

The class introduced the stacked turret design with two 8” guns in the upper turret and two 13” guns in the lower turret. One double turret on the forecastle and one aft of the superstructure were the main guns of the ship.

Neither ship in the class was ever engaged in battle, but both participated in “The Great White Fleet” of 16 battleships in a 1907 circumnavigation of the globe, ordered by President Theodore Roosevelt as a show of America’s goodwill and naval power.
Built by: Newport News Shipbuilding in Virginia at a cost of $5 million each
Commissioned: February and May, 1890
Displacement: 11,540 tons
Length: 375 ft. Beam 72 ft.
Crew: 554 Officers and Enlisted Men
Four 13” guns in two turrets
Four 8” guns in four turrets
Six 4” guns in casemates
Twenty 6-pounder guns
Eight 1-pounder guns
Four .30 caliber machine guns
Four 18” torpedo tubes
Speed: 17 knots
Stacks Image 147
USS Alabama BB-8
Illinois Class

USS Illinois (BB-7)
USS Alabama (BB-8) (shown above)
USS Wisconsin (BB-9)

One advance in this design were the modern turrets with sloped armor front. Getting away from the cylindrical turrets of earlier ships meant that the turrets could be balanced…. with weight toward the back of the turret to balance the weight of the long guns. Previously a broadside positing of a gun turret would cause a ship to list.

All three Illinois class battleships sailed with President Theodore Roosevelt’s Great White Fleet on an around-the-world tour designed to showcase America’s great power and international goodwill.

The ships were modernized before World War One with tall “cage towers” for observation and with sealing off the casemates that sported the 6” guns. During the war, they were employed in various non-combat missions, mostly as training ships.
Built: 1896-1901
Length: 375 ft.
Beam: 72 ft.
Displacement: 12,250 Long Tons (13,720 tons)
Power: Eight coal-fired oal fired boilers, triple expansion steam engines driving two props.
Speed: 16 + knots
Crew: 536 officers and enlisted men
Armament: Four 13” guns on 2 turrets
Fourteen Mark IV 6” guns
Sixteen 2.2” guns
Six 1.5” guns
Four 18” torpedo tubes (above deck)

The 13” inch guns fired 1,130 pound shell a distance of up to 7 miles. However they were only reliably accurate at that distance. At just over a mile, the shell could penetrate 20” of steel.
Stacks Image 322
The Mark IV - 6” gun
The Mark 4 gun was used for the USS Indiana (BB-1), USS Massachusetts (BB-2), USS Oregon (BB-3), USS Illinois (BB-7)
USS Alabama (BB-8), USS Wisconsin (BB-9) and two cruisers of the day.

Mark IV gun
Stacks Image 145
USS Missouri BB-11
Maine Class
USS Maine (BB-10
USS Missouri (BB-11) (shown above)
USS Ohio (Bb-12)

A little bigger than the Illinois class, also had better armor by using Krupp cemented steel plate. Shown above with “cage masts” for observation, which were added later and not part of the original design. Cage masts were used by American ships during WW1. One thing they provided was a platform for seeing the accuracy of round from one of the big guns so that the next round could be adjusted for distance.

All three in this class smile with President Theodore Roosevelt’s Great White Fleet. but were used primarily for training during WW2
Built: 1899-1904
Length: 393 ft.
Beam: 72 ft.
Displacement: 12,846 Long tons (14,389 tons)
Power: Twelve coal-fired oal fired boilers, triple expansion steam engines driving two props.
Speed: 18 knots
Armament: Four 12” guns on 2 turrets
Sixteen Mark VI 6” guns
Eight 1.9” guns
Six 1.5” guns
Two 18” torpedo tubes (below the water line)
Stacks Image 143
USS Rhode Island BB-17
Virginia Class

USS Virginia (BB-13)
USS Nebraska (BB-14)
USS Georgia (BB-15)
USS New Jersey (BB-16)
USS Rhode Island (BB-17) (shown above)

A little bigger and more heavily armed than the previous class. You can see in the photo above the arrangement of 8” gun turrets stacked on top of the fore and aft 12” gun turrets. It was an concept that was scrapped after this class because firing 8” guns interfered with the 12” guns.

All five ships in this class sailed with President Theodore Roosevelt’s Great White Fleet. Some served in South American waters and participated in the American intervention in the 1914 Mexican Revolution. Other than a short period of escorting military transport ships to Europe and bringing troops home after the war, the only role this class had in WW 1 was as training ships.
Built: 1902-1907
Length: 441 ft.
Beam: 76 ft.
Displacement: 14,948 Long tons (15,245 tons)
Power: Twelve coal-fired oal fired boilers, triple expansion steam engines driving two props.
Speed: 19 knots
Armament: Four 12” guns on 2 turrets
Eight 8” guns
Twelve 6” guns
Twelve 3” guns
Four 21” torpedo tubes (below the water line)
Stacks Image 141
USS Louisiana BB-19
Connecticut Class

USS Connecticut (BB-18)
USS Louisiana (BB19) (shown above)
USS Vermont
USS Kansas
USS Minnesota
USS New Hampshire

This class was designed to be bigger and more powerful than the previous Virginia class. Instead of placing 8” guns on turrets atop the 12” gun turrets, the design called for two 2-gun turrets on each side of the ship for the 8” guns. The twelve 7” guns were in casemates.

Five ships of the class sailed with President Roosevelt’s Great White Fleet. This class of battleship escorted convoys to Europe during WW 1 and brought troops home after the war. They were otherwise used as training ships during WW1.
Built: 1903-1908
Length: 456 ft., Beam: 77 ft.
Displacement: 16,000 Long tons (17,920 tons)
Speed: 18 knots
Power: Twelve coal-fired boilers powering triple expansion steam engines — 2 props
827 Officers and Enlisted
Four 12” guns in two turrets
Eight 8” guns in four turrets amidships
Twelve 7” guns in casemates
Twenty 3” guns
Twelve 3-pounder guns
Four 1-pounder guns
Four 21” torpedo tubes
Stacks Image 139
Stacks Image 137
USS Mississippi BB-23
Mississippi Class Battleship
USS Mississippi - BB-23
USS Idaho - BB-24
Built by William Camp & Sons, Philadelphia
Launched 1905
13,000 Long Tons
Length: 382 ft., Beam 77 ft
Speed 17 knots
744 officers and enlisted men
(4) 12” guns
(8) 8” guns
(8) 7” guns
(2) 21” torpedo tubes
Sold in 19
Stacks Image 189

Dreadnought Battleships of World War One

At the turn of the century, there was an intense naval arms race between Britain and Germany, which suddenly tripped heavily in Britain’s favor in 1906 with the launch of the HMS Dreadnought. Other countries, including the U.S. followed suit, and in the lead-up to WW1, battleships became larger, more heavily armed and armored, and more powerful. The Dreadnought had ushered in a big guns and steam turbine propulsion. The term “dreadnought” was then generally applied to this new level of battleship.
Stacks Image 215
USS South Carolina BB-6
South Carolina Class Dreadnought
USS South Carolina BB-26 (Shown)
USS Michigan BB-27
In the theory that naval battles would have to be fought at greater distance, battleships would need primarily to sport 11 inch or 12 inch guns capable of greater distance and greater damage at distance. 7 in. or 8 in. guns would not be effective against ships with a torpedo range of 4 miles. There was a lot of debate as to the best way to mount larger guns. A three-gun turret was considered not realistic, so the dreadnoughts ended up with four or five 2-gun turrets. The new ships would have to be bigger and have more power. The South Carolina Class was 70 ft. longer and 3,000 long tons heavier than the preceding pre dreadnought Mississippi Class.
Built 1906-1910 by William Camp & Sons, Philadelphia and New York Shipbuilding Corp
Commissioned: 1910
Displacement: 16,000 long tons (17,920 tons)
Length: 452 ft. , Beam: 80 ft.
Power: (12) coal fired boilers powering vertical triple expansion steam engines - 2 props
Speed: 18.5 knots, Range: 6,950 nautical miles
Crew: 932 officers and enlisted men
Armament: (8) 12 in. guns mounted in (4) turrets
(22) 3 in. guns, (2) 1.85 in. guns, (8) 1.46 in. guns
(2) 21 in. torpedo tubes

Stacks Image 222
USS Delaware BB-28
Delaware Class Dreadnought
USS Delaware (BB-28) (shown above)
USS North Dakota (BB29)
Bigger, faster, and more lethal than the first Dreadnought class. Not surprisingly, the Navy wanted more powerful ships, and the Congress worried about cost so they had set a limit of 16,000 long tons on battleships, our heaviest ships, but after the first two dreadnoughts, the U.S. realized that this was limit was problematic, so the Delaware Class exceeded 20,000 tong tons, which made possible a fifth big turret and more propulsion power.
Built 1907-1909 by Newport News Shipbuilding and Fore River Shipyard
Commissioned: April, 1910
Displacement: 20,380 long tons (23,823 tons)
Length: 518 ft ft. , Beam: 85 ft.
Power: (14) coal-fired boilers powering vertical triple expansion steam engines - 2 props
Speed: 21 knots, Range: 6,000 nautical miles
Crew: 933 officers and enlisted men
Armament: (10) 12 in. guns mounted in (5) turrets
(14) 5 in. guns, (2) 1.85 in. guns, (8) 1.46 in. guns
(2) 21 in. torpedo tubes
Stacks Image 199
USS Florida BB-30
Florida Class Dreadnought
USS Florida (BB-30) (shown above)
USS Utah (31)

A tad larger and heavier than the Delaware class, but otherwise very similar. As with the Delaware class, placement of the gun turrets aft of the superstructure limited the direction they could aim, but this ship had impressive firepower. Her main guns could fire an armor-piercing shell weighing 870 lbs. and hit a target eleven miles away. Each ship carried 100 shells and propellant for each gun, a total of 1,000 rounds for her big guns.

Both ships served in the 1914 conflict with Mexico and in World Ward One. Florida as decommissioned in 1931 to comply with the 1930 London Naval Treaty. Delaware was sunk in the 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Launched in 1909 and 1910
Displacement: 21,825 Long tons (24,444 tons)
Length: 521 ft. Beam: 88 ft.
Coal-fired water tube boilers powering Four steam turbines, Four props
Speed: 21 knots
Range: 5,776 nautical miles
Crew: 1,001 officers and enlisted
(10) 12 in. guns in Five turrets
(16) 5 in. guns in casemates
(4) 57 mm guns
(2) 37 mm guns
(2) 21 inch torpedo tubes.

Stacks Image 197
USS Wyoming BB-32
Wyoming Class Dreadnought
USS Wyoming (BB-32) (Shown above)
USS Arkansas (BB-33)
It seems that each time the Navy designed a new class of battleship, it was a little bigger and more heavily armored as well as armed. For the Wyoming Class a Sixth turret was added so that the ship could sport Twelve 12-inch guns. The Navy considered a smaller number of 14-inch guns, but the larger guns had not been fully developed. However the 12-inch guns in this class were a little more powerful with the ability to pierce contemporary hardened armor 12 inches thick. at a distance of almost 7 miles.

Armor was also increased over the previous class, and for the first time in battleship design, a torpedo bulkhead was added. A torpedo bulkhead is an extra layer of hull bulging out under the water line to provide a first line of defense against torpedoes.

Both ships assisted the British fleet during World War One. During World War Two, Wyoming was converted to a training ship, and Arkansas served in the North Atlantic and participated in the 1944 Normandy invasion, shelling onshore German positions.
Built: 1910-1912
Displacement: 26,000 long tons (29,120 tons)
Length: 562 ft. Beam: 93 ft.
Propulsion: Coal-fired water-tube boilers powering four steam turbines and four props.
Speed: 21 knots
Range: 8,000 nautical miles
Crew: 1,063 officers and enlisted
(12) 12-inch guns in (6) turrets
(21) 5-inch guns in casemates
(4) 47 mm guns
(2) 21-inch torpedo tubes
Stacks Image 195
USS New York BB-34
NewYork Class Dreadnought
USS New York (BB-34)
USS Texas (BB-35)

With the 14-inch naval gun having successfully completed the testing stage, this class was first to sport the larger and more deadly main guns.

During World War One, they were assigned to assist the British Fleet. After undergoing extensive modernization, including the addition of anti-aircraft guns, both ships served extensively in World War Two in both Atlantic and Pacific theaters. They supported Allied troop landings in Normandy and southern France, and then later in the Pacific Theatre, including the invasion of Iwo Jima.

New York survives today as a museum ship in Texas. (See museum ship directory.)
Built: 1911-1914
Displacement: 27,000 long tons (30,240 tons)
Length: 573 ft. Beam: 95 ft.
Propulsion: Coal-fired boilers powering two triple expansion steam engines and two props.
Speed: 21 knots
Range: 7,000 miles
Crew: 1,042 officers and enlisted.
(10) 14-inch guns in (5) turrets
(21) 5-inch guns in casemates
Stacks Image 193
After the Dreadnought
For centuries, naval battles had been battles between ships. The ship that had the advantage would have firepower, maneuverability and speed, as well as an experienced captain and brave crew. The dreadnoughts followed in this tradition. Battleships had long been used for shore bombardment making big guns useful, but the dreadnoughts were also designed to win a battle between ships. This basic concept changed after World War One because in that war, the use of airplanes had been introduced. And if the American Navy didn’t fully understand how this would change naval warfare, they sure did after the December 7, 1941 surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, which had been carried out mostly from the air. You may have noticed in all of the ships on this page, the absence of anti-aircraft guns. Battleships would see another two generations of design change before, the Navy realized that aircraft carriers, submarines, and smaller missile-launching ships would rule the seas of the future.
Stacks Image 352
Web Site Sponsor: Great American Posters
Stacks Image 354
Stacks Image 356
Stacks Image 358
Stacks Image 360
Patriotic Posters
At the beginning of the 20th Century, full-color printing was coming of age, and the U.S. Government produced posters that would promote patriotism and encourage people to enlist in the Army or Navy or support the war effort on the home front. The best illustration artists of the day were patriots and donated their talents for the cause. We offer a collection of the most colorful and wonderful patriotic illustration art in American history with beautifully reproduced poster art prints starting at just $12.95 with free shipping. Even if you don't purchase, the web site is an-up close look at this fascinating subject.

© 2017 Phil Dickinson
P.O. Box 4195, Middletown, RI 02842

Ocean Color Group, Inc.
A design studio specializing
in unique solutions
for display, print and internet
and Great American Posters


This site is part of the American Tribute Online project. It is not a commercial site, and it is not associated with any museum or other organization. The purpose of the project is to celebrate our American heritage and provide an online resource for showcasing the America that we can all be proud of.
This site is sponsored by
http://www.Great American
Stacks Image 368